Fire Precautions Training Policy

FIRE PRECAUTIONS TRAINING

 

FIRST AID FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

 

 

CONTROL OF FIRE

 

 

1.         First Aid Fire Fighting Equipment:                    Types and Uses

 

 

 

Type of Fire

Colour

Content

How to Operate
Paper, Wood, Textiles

Red

Water

Keep upright.  Remove safety clip. Strike plunger.  Aim at base of fire. 
Person on Fire.Small fat fires

Fire Blanket

Blanket

Unfold.  Hold in front of face and body to act as a shield.  Protect hands.  Place over fire area. 
Flammable liquids. Wood, Paper, Textiles

Red with cream Band

Foam

Keep upright, remove safety clip. Strike plunger.  Aim at base of fire. 
Flammable liquids.  Electrical fires.

Red with black band

CO2

Keep upright, remove safety clip, extend nozzle.  Aim at base of fire. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FIRE PRECAUTIONS TRAINING

 

NATURE OF FIRE

 

 

 

1.      Signs of Fire

 

The signs of fire can be seen, smelt, heard or felt (or all four) and includes flames, smoke, a singeing or burning smell, a crackling or roaring sound or a sensation of heat.

 

2.      Recognising Fire by:

 

          a)      Sight:                   Flames, Smoke

          b)      Smell:         Smoke, Burning

          c)      Sound:       Alarm, Crackling

          d)      Touch:       Heat

 

3.      Smoke

 

Smoke produced in a fire is more dangerous than flames, because it disorientates vision and the means of exit.  Also, the poisonous substances it contains can affect respiration and ultimately kill.

 

To minimise its risks, keep low when moving through smoke, as it rises and fills the space nearest the floor last.

 

4.      Controlling Smoke and Fire

 

The quickest, most effective and easiest way to prevent the spread of smoke and fire is to close doors and windows.

 

Fire doors are constructed of materials that will withstand the passage of smoke an fire (for a specified time, usually 30 or 60 minutes) but they are only effective when closed.  Wedging doors prevents closures when in a hurry and reduces their efficiency.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FIRE PRECAUTIONS TRAINING

 

CHEMISTRY OF FIRE

 

 

 

1.         COMBUSTION

 

A chemical reaction or series of reactions in which heat and light are evolved.  When the rate of reaction is slow, only heat is evolved and a slow oxidation occurs, such as rusting.  Combustion represents a rapid rate of reaction in which light is emitted as well as heat.

 

2.         ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS

 


            a)         Oxygen                                                                                 

            b)         Heat                                                                Oxygen                      Heat

            c)         Fuel (solids, liquids and gases)

 

                                                                                                                    Fuel

 

3.         CLASSES OF FIRE

 

a)         Class ‘A’        Solid materials, usually of organic nature in which combustion takes place with the formation of glowing embers; wood, paper, textiles etc.

 

b)         Class ‘B’        Fires involving liquids and liquefiable solids.  Oil, fat, paint, waxes etc.

 

c)         Class ‘C’        Fires involving gases.

 

d)         Class ‘D’        Fires involving metals.

 

NOTE: It is not considered, according to present day ideas, that electrical fires constitute a class, since any fire involving electrical equipment must, in fact, be a fire of Class A, B or D.  The normal procedure in such circumstances is to cut off the electricity and use an extinguishing method appropriate to what is burning.  Only when this cannot be done with certainty will special extinguishing agents be required which are non-conductors of electricity and non-damaging to equipment i.e. vapourising liquids, dry powder and carbon dioxide.

 

4.         METHODS OF EXTINCTION

 

a)         Cooling (limitation of temperature) – the cooling principle I fire extinction is the application of water.  The water absorbs heat from the fire, thus reducing the temperature of the burning mass and the fire dies away.

 

b)        Smothering (limitation of oxygen) – the smothering principle in fire extinction is to sufficiently reduce the oxygen content of the atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the burning material thus causing combustion to cease.

 

c)         Starving (limitation of fuel)

 

1.         The starving principles in fire extinction is by removing combustible material from the vicinity of the fire.

 

2.         By removing the fire from the vicinity of the combustible material, or,

 

3.         By sub-dividing the burning material, when the smaller fires produced may be left to burn out or to be extinguished more easily by other means.

 

5.         TRANSMISSION OF HEAT

 

Heat travels from regions of high temperature to regions of low temperature.

 

There are three methods by which heat may be transmitted.

 

a)         Conduction

 

The transfer of heat in materials form areas of high temperature to areas of low temperature, e.g. an unprotected steel girder passing through a fireproof wall may cause fire to spread because of heat conducted along it.

           

            b)        Convection 

 

In the fire situation convection is the upward travel of hot gases produced by combustion to upper floors of buildings thereby spreading the fire.  In turn a current of cool air replaces the hot gases rising from the fire and helps to accelerate the burning.

 

            c)         Radiation

 

Rays of heat travelling in straight lines through a space and the heat is being absorbed by a body, whose temperature is raised e.g. clothes on a horse being placed too near to a source of radiated heat.

 

6.         FLASH POINT

           

The lowest temperature at which there is sufficient vapourisation of the substance to produce a vapour which will flash momentarily when flame is applied.

 

7.         FIRE POINT

 

The lowest temperature at which the heat from the combustion of a burning vapour is capable of producing sufficient vapour to enable combustion to continue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.         SPONTANEOUS IGNITION TEMPERATURE

 

The lowest temperature at which a substance will ignite spontaneously – that is the substance will burn without the introduction of a flame or other ignition source.  This is sometimes referred to as ignition temperature.

 

9.         SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION

 

This is a result of heat generated by reacting substances themselves. Eventually the ignition temperature is reached and true combustion commences.

 

10.       LIMITS OF FLAMMABILITY

 

A flammable gas or vapour will only burn in air if the composition lies between certain limits. If too much or too little fuel is present, burning will not take place, the mixture is said to be either to lean or too rich.  These limits are referred to as the lower and upper limits of flammability, i.e.

 

Lower Limits

 

The lowest concentration of fuel that will just support a self-propagation flame.

 

 

FIRE PRECAUTIONS TRAINING

 

EVACUATION

 

 

 

1.      Main Patient Handling Methods

 

a)      Blanket:    Put blanket / Counterpane on floor, place patient onto blanket and pull to safety.  A quick method, reducing dangers from smoke, requiring minimum numbers of staff, limited skill training needed.

 

b)      Hand lifts, two, three or four-handed, useful for carrying patients who can assist in supporting themselves by placing arms around rescuers shoulders.  Quick but tiring method.  Needs training skill.

 

c)      Wheelchairs, require two helpers to get patients into chair, thereafter only one to push.  Quick but dependent on availability, best suited to horizontal evacuation.

 

d)      Other methods according to local practice.

 

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